After a significant English arrival to east, India was given very much a colonial look in perhaps every sphere of existence. wad it true for the Indian sculpture also?
Posted On : 3/25/2009 6:28:15 AM
Parineeta Rai Reward Points : 18900 Member Since : Wednesday, March 18, 2009
the British brought the long lasting impact on Indian architecture through their two hundreds years of ruling. They were the successors of Mughal emperors who used architecture and sculpture as a symbol of their power. The British followed different architectural styles among which Gothic, Imperial, Christian, English, Renaissance and Victorian were the most important. The British architecture started with building factories but soon they started building courts, schools, municipal halls and Dak Bungalows, which were all ordinary structures built by garrison engineers. A better version of architectures was exhibited in Churches and other public buildings. The most well known British architects of that period were Wren, Adam, Nash and others in London and other places, who designed and constructed the buildings. Many buildings of that time were influenced and copied from famous buildings in London and other places of Britain.
Posted On : 3/25/2009 9:54:49 PM
Umesh Upadhayay Reward Points : 31200 Member Since : Tuesday, December 25, 2007
The sculpture and architecture of the colonial period varied from the early attempts to create the classical prototypes to the comparatively newer Indo-saracenic style, which is a mixture of Hindu, Islamic and Western elements. The European colonists brought the new concept of western sculptural art to India. They had a very rich history of European architecture consisting of Neo-classical, Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance style. The initial structures they built were useful warehouses, walled trading posts as well as forted townships along the coastline. The Portugese colonists adapted to the Indian climate and built Iberian galleried patio house and the baroque churches of Goa. Typical Portuguese Gothic style is found in Se Cathedral and arch of Conception of Goa. The St. Francis Church, built by Portuguese in 1510, is considered as The first church built by Europeans in India. The Portuguese were first to built the forts like Castella De Aguanda near Mumbai. They added fortification to the Bassein fort built by Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujrat, in 1532 AD. The Bassein fort is popular for the Matriz or Cathedral of St. Joseph, the Corinthian pillared hall and the Porte Da Mer or the sea gate. here is also Danish influence in Indian sculpture, which is clearly visible in Nagapatnam, that was laid out in squares and canals and also in Tranquebar and Srerampore. The French brought a distinct urban design In Indian sculpture. Finally came the British ... he British architecture started with building factories but soon they started building courts, schools, municipal halls and Dak Bungalows, which were all ordinary structures built by garrison engineers.
Posted On : 3/26/2009 4:03:16 AM
Indu Tripathi Reward Points : 22900 Member Since : Wednesday, April 09, 2008
he Neo-Gothic style of architecture flourished in different parts of India under the British, inspired by the Houses of Parliament in London. The Bombay Town Hall was built under Victoria Terminusthe observation of Thomas Cowper in the years 1820 to 1835. Governor Sir Bartle Frere really tried to give Bombay an imperial look and feel. Under his rule the old town hall of Bombay was abolished and Gateway of India was raised in a gothic style of architecture.The Secretariat, University Library, Rajabai Tower, Telegraph Office and the Victoria Terminus all adopted the Victorian Gothic style, similar to buildings in London.The Victoria Terminus, designed by architect Frederick William Stevens followed the St. Pancras Station. This is probably the best example of Gothic style of architecture, with an elusive hint of Indo-Saracenic motifs with an extravaganza of polychromatic stone, decorated tile marble and stained glass. The same architect also designed other buildings like the Church gate Terminus and the Municipal Building opposite to Victoria Terminus. There are several other examples of British architectural monument all over the India. In Varanasi, Major Kitoe built Queen s College in the year 1847 to 1852, which was the example of true Gothic sculpture, built in a perpendicular style. In Allahabad, British built a series of edifices including the University, the High Court, the Mayo College and All Saints Cathedral. In Calcutta the High Court was constructed following the same Gothic style. The Howrah Bridge built in Calcutta on 1943 with its red brick fa ade surrounded by eight square towers is a combination of Oriental and Roman styles. Fort William is another major construction by British, which took thirteen years to construct at a cost of three and a half million dollars. The Victoria Memorial, built on 1921, designed by Sir William Emerson is the most impressive of the British architectures in India.
As far as the origin of sculpture is concerned, it goes back to the Stone Age. The Megalithic people buried their dead and constructed monumental stones over them and worshipped them. The change Mohenjodaro Dancing girl over from worshipping the ancestral spirits to a personal God is reflected in making icons of the God with his specific attributes. Tiny terra-cotta seals discovered from the Indus Valley reveal carvings of peepal leaves, deities and animals. The famous figurine of the dancing girl of Mohenjodaro bears witness to the fact that the tradition of sculpture and bronze casting goes back to the Indus Valley Civilisation and shows tremendous sophistication and artistry. The sculpture in India started appearing from 3rd century BC with the stone pillars of Ashoka, the stupas and Toranas of Sanchi, Bharhut, Amravati and the rock-cut viharas of Barabar, Bhaja, Pitalkhoda, Karle, Bedsa, Ajanta and others andBuddha Statue continued till the12th century AD. During the reign of the Mauryan emperor Ashoka, nearly 85,000 stupas were constructed. Many awe-inspiring statues exhibiting a serene Buddha, with a glowing face were crafted in large numbers. Though, Buddhism deplored idol worship, human forms of Lord Buddha began to be depicted with features like a halo around the head, the dharmachakra engraved upon his palms and soles of his feet, and the lion throne representing his royal ancestry. The earliest archaeological evidence of sculpture work in metal, terracotta, wood and stone in the Indian sub-continent is provided by the remains found at the pre-Harappan sites of Baluchistan, the Makran areas of Pakistan and Kalibangan in Rajasthan, dating back to 3000 BC. Literary evidence Sculpture from the Rigveda states that copper and bronze-smithy was a specialized science and that craftsmen were held in high esteem. Whether it is in wood, stone or ivory, the Indian carver-craftsman has been extremely versatile in applying his techniques and designs to various media. Carved wooden facades and fixtures of dwellings, domestic shrines, temples, churches and palaces of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Kashmir and Kulu in Himachal Pradesh are marked by intricate designs. In Punjab and Haryana, there exists a tradition of clay wall relief in appliqu . India is also famous for producing a startling range of terracotta figures, ritual and secular utility objects and toys for children. Modern Sculptors: Modern sculpture, like other mediums of art, has experienced a revival. While the traditionalists continue to follow the rhythmic, decorative tradition of the Gupta and Chola periods, there is a growing breed of modern sculptors who are endeavouring to simplify the art form and to bring in contemporary elements and social awareness into their art. Sculptors of this group freely assimilate art forms of Europe and other places to evolve their own individualistic styles.
In the late eighteenth century, precisely during the 1780s, the Bacons, father and son, developed the decorative allegorical style which characterised much of British sculpture executed in India. Some of the first church funerary monuments were sculpted in Madras. For example, the monument to Lieutenant-Colonel John Campbell, who died in 1784 in Mangalore during the Third Mysore War, was placed in St. Thomas s Cathedral in Madras. The marble monument to Lieutenant-Colonel Joseph Moorhouse, who died in 1791 at the siege of Bangalore, is located at St. Mary s Church, Madras. From the period of 1800s, the church memorials honouring civil officials of the Company projected a eulogistic theme toward the performance of duty. In the case of Sir William Jones 1746-1794 and James Kirkpatrick 1764-1805 , sculpture denoted their interest in Oriental knowledge. Two monuments by James Flaxman of Jones are located in England. While John Bacon, Jr. s work of Kirkpatrick resides at St. John s Church, Calcutta. Both sculptures possessed Eastern symbols and a sense of mysticism. It is evident from these works that sculpture during early British rule in India had started with a bang, which did not seem to stop some time soon. Sculptors were full of enthusiasm, gifted as they were with rare aesthetic vision. Deathbed scenes constituted another leading theme of sculpture during early British rule in India. They were a common means for the representation of those associated with the Christian ministry. Sculptures by John Bacon, Jr. of the Danish missionary Christian Frederick Schwartz d. 1798 are located at St. Mary s Church, Madras and at Tanjore. Few sculptures devoted to women were also accomplished in India. An exception is John Bacon, Jr. s monument at St. Mary s Church, Madras of Jane Amelia Russell who died in 1808. Her family connections, tragically brief life and recent marriage earned her this touching deathbed scene. During the 1810s, John Bacon, Jr. initiated an altruistic theme in Indian sculptural works, depicting the philanthropic and Good Samaritan images. His monument of George Gilbert Keble d.1811 at St. Mary s Church, Madras, demonstrates this sense of charity. Likewise, Bacon s relief of Charles Robert Ross d.1816 in St. John s Church, Calcutta, displays a philanthropic scene.