India is a creative society with advancement in creativity with every era....like the Indus valley civilization had a rich craft tradition as well as a high degree of technical excellence in the field of pottery making and sculpture. Similarly, many other eras have their specialty.....Can we discuss the specialty that the other eras contribute to Indian craft
Posted On : 04/20/09 12:34:16 AM
Roop Chatterjee Reward Points : 21400 Member Since : Wednesday, February 11, 2009
Hi all.....It is said that during the time of Ashoka 84,000 stupas were built in India, including the world famous Sanchi stupa, which has beautiful stone carving and relief work done on it. so we can say that In Ashok s era also art and craft attained creativity. The iron pillars of Vaishali Bihar and Delhi, created during the time of Emperor Ashoka, are a marvel in the field of metallurgy.
Posted On : 04/21/09 3:19:06 AM
Maniam PS Reward Points : 273700 Member Since : Wednesday, March 18, 2009
The period of the imperial Cholas c. 850 CE - 1250 CE was an age of continuous improvement and refinement of the Dravidian art and architecture. They utilised their prodigious wealth earned through their extensive conquests in building long-lasting stone temples and exquisite bronze sculptures. Most of these still stand proudly articulating those glorious days The Cholas continued the temple building traditions of the Pallava dynasty and elevated the Dravidian temple design to greater heights. The Chola kings built numerous temples throughout the kingdom. The evolution of the temple architectural styles can be divided into three phases - the early phase starting with Vijayalaya Chola, the middle phase of Rajaraja Chola and Rajendra Chola when the achievements scaled heights never reached before or since and the final phase during the Chalukya Chola period of Kulottunga Chola I and after. The Cholas also built many secular buildings such as public utility buildings and palaces. Many such buildings find mention in their inscriptions and in contemporary accounts. The golden palace Aditya Karikala built for his father Sundara Chola is an example for such a building. However, such buildings were of perishable materials such as timber and fired bricks and have not survived the ravages of time The Chola period is also remarkable for its sculptures and bronzes. Among the existing specimens in the various museums of the world and in the temples of South India may be seen many fine figures of Siva in various forms, Vishnu and his consort Lakshmi, Siva saints and many more.Though conforming generally to the iconographic conventions established by long tradition, the sculptor worked in great freedom in the eleventh and the twelfth centuries and the sculptures and bronzes show classic grace, grandeur and perfect taste. The best example of this can be seen in the form of Nataraja the Divine Dancer. Although bronze casting has a long history in south India, a much larger and a much greater number of bronze sculptures were cast during the Chola period than before, further attesting to the importance of bronze sculpture during this period. It should be noted that when in worship, these images are covered in silk cloths, garlands, and jewels, and would not appear as they do outside a religious context. Decorating the bronzes in this way is a tradition at least a thousand years old as such decorations are referred to in 10th-century Chola inscriptions. Hundreds of Chola bronzes have been smuggled out of India and have found their way into the private museums of art-collectors. Chola period bronzes were created using the lost wax technique. 29 It is known in artistic terms as Cire Perdue . The Sanskrit Shilpa texts call it the Madhu Uchchishtta Vidhana. Beeswax and kungilium a type of camphor are mixed with a little oil and kneaded well. The figure is sculpted from this mixture fashioning all the minute details. This is the wax model original. The entire figure is then coated with clay made from termite hills until the mould is of a necessary thickness. Then the whole thing is dried and fired in an oven with cow-dung cakes. The wax model melts and flows out, while some of it vapourises. The metal alloy of bronze is melted and poured into the empty clay-mould. This particular bronze alloy is known as Pancha Loham. When the metal has filled all crevices and has settled and hardened and cooled, the mould is broken off. The bronze figure thus obtained is then cleaned, finer details are added, blemishes are removed, smoothened, and polished well. Hence each bronze icon is unique and the mould cannot be used to create copies.
Posted On : 04/21/09 9:57:32 PM
Sampada Jadhav Reward Points : 6200 Member Since : Tuesday, March 31, 2015